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YEAR LIST 2013         followed by         EXCURSION NOTES 2013

For other year lists and excursion notes with photos click here: Year List 2015, Year List 2014
2013SPECIESLOCATION
02.03.20131Large Tortoiseshell. Nymphalis polychlorosPomarolo, Trentino, Italy
02.03.20132Red Admiral. Vanessa atalantaPomarolo, Trentino
02.03.20133Small Tortoiseshell. Aglais urticaePomarolo, Trentino
02.03.20134Nettle-Tree Butterfly, Libythea celtisPomarolo, Trentino
22.03.20135Comma. Polygonia c-albumPomarolo, Trentino
22.03.20136Clouded Yellow, Colias croceusPomarolo, Trentino
--.03.20137Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamniRovereto, Trentino
01.04.20138Holly Blue, Celastrina argiolusMontalcino, Tuscany
06.04.20139Green-veined White, Pieris napiIsera, Trentino
13.04.201310Scarce Swallowtail, Iphiclides podaliriusPedersano, Trentino
13.04.201311Swallowtail, Papilio machaonPedersano, Trentino
13.04.201312Chequered Blue, Scolitantides orionPedersano, Trentino
13.04.201313Wall, Lasiommata megeraPomarolo, Trentino
28.04.201314Green Hairstreak, Callophrys rubiServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
28.04.201315Grizzled Skipper, Pyrgus malvaeServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
28.04.201316Glanville Fritillary, Melitaea cinxiaServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
28.04.201317Orange Tip, Anthocharis cardominesServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
09.05.201318Small White, Pieris rapaeSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
09.05.201319Speckled Wood, Pararge aegeriaSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
09.05.201320Dingy Skipper, Erynnis tagesSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
09.05.201321Wood White, Leptidea sinapisSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
09.05.201322Small Heath, Coenonympha pamphilusSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
09.05.201323Small Blue, Cupido minimusSan Colombano, Rovereto. Trentino
11.05.201324Green-underside Blue, Glaucopsyche alexisServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
11.05.201325Common Blue, Polyommatus icarusServis, Pomarolo. Trentino
12.05.201326Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Clossiana euphrosynePedersano, Trentino
18.05.201327Pale Clouded Yellow, Colias hyale ?Moietto, Trentino
18.05.201328Chapman's Blue, Polyommatus thersitesMoietto, Trentino
26.05.201329Spotted Fritillary, Melitaea didymaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
26.05.201330Woodland Ringlet, Erebia medusaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
26.05.201331Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, Hamearis lucinaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
28.05.201332Large Skipper, Ochlodes venataNogaredo,Trentino
02.06.201333Silver-Studded Blue, Plebejus argusServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
02.06.201334Adonis Blue, Lysandra bellargusServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
08.06.201335Queen of Spain Fritillary, Issoria lathoniaMalga Somator, Bordala, Trentino
08.06.201336Geranium Argus, Eumedonia eumedon, Malga Somator, Bordala, Trentino
08.06.201337Sooty Copper, Lycaena tityrusMalga Somator, Bordala, Trentino
14.06.201338Amanda's Blue, Agrodiaetus amandaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
14.06.201339Mazarine Blue, Cyaniris semiargusServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
15.06.201340Chequered Skipper, Carterocephalus palaemonSerrada, Trentino
15.06.201341Painted lady, Vanessa carduiSerrada, Trentino
15.06.201342Large Wall Brown, Pararge maera
Serrada, Trentino
16.06.201343Clouded Apollo, Parnassius, mnemosyneCimana di Pomarolo, Trentino
19.06.201344Thor's Fritillary, Clossiana thore
Val di Rabbi, Trentino
19.06.201345Darwin's Heath, Coenonympha darwiniana
Val di Rabbi, Trentino
20.06.201346Small Pearl-Bordered Fritillary, Clossinana selene
Val di Rabbi, Trentino
20.06.201347Small Copper, Lycaena phlaes
Val di Rabbi, Trentino
25.06.201348Black-veined White, Aporia crataegiServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201349Marbled Fritillary, Brenthis daphneServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201350Twin-spot Fritillary, Brenthis hecateServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201351Marbled White, Melanargia galatheaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201352Meadow Brown, Maniola jurtinaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201353Ilex Hairstreak, Satyrium ilicisServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201353Silver-washed Fritillary, Argynnis paphiaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
25.06.201353Peacock, Nymphalis ioServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
26.06.201354Essex Skipper, Thymelicus lineolaServis, Pomarolo, Trentino
28.06.201355Great-banded Grayling, Kanetisa circePonte Porton, Croatia
30.06.201356Cleopatra, Gonepteryx cleopatraRovigno, Croatia
30.06.201357White Admiral, Limenitus camillaRovigno, Croatia
03.07.201358Mallow Skipper, Carcharodus alceaBrac Island, Croatia
03.07.201359Tree GraylingBrac Island, Croatia
03.07.201360Woodland GraylingBrac Island, Croatia
04.07.201361Southern White AdmiralBrac Island, Croatia
04.07.201362Southern CommaBrac Island, Croatia
05.07.201363CardinalBrac Island, Croatia
05.07.201364Eastern Bath WhiteBrac Island, Croatia
23.07.201365Gatekeeper, Pyronia tithonusKonjic, Bosnia
23.07.201366Chalkhill Blue, Lysandra coridonKonjic, Bosnia
26.07.201367Purple Emperor, Apatura irisSarajevo, Bosnia
26.07.201368Common Glider, Neptis sapphoSarajevo, Bosnia
26.07.201369Lesser Purple Emperor, Apatura iliaSarajevo, Bosnia
27.07.201370Camberwell Beauty, Nymphalis antiopaSarajevo, Bosnia
27.07.201371Poplar Admiral, Limenitis populiSarajevo, Bosnia
30.07.201372Map, Arachnia levanaPrijedor, Bosnia
30.07.201373Short-tailed Blue.,Everes argiadesPrijedor, Bosnia
31.07.201374Large CopperKarlovac, Croatia.
02.08.201375Arran Brown / Large Ringlet, Erebia ligeaPasubio, Trentino, Italy
02.08.201376Shepherds Fritillary. Boloria palesPasubio, Trentino, Italy
06.08.201377DryadRovereto, Trentino. Italy
06.08.201378Purple Hairstreak, Rovereto, Trentino. Italy
06.08.201379Scotch ArgusRovereto, Trentino. Italy
08.08.201380High Brown FritillaryServis, Trentino, Italy
13.08.201381Moorland Clouded Yellow, Colias palaenoVal di Riva, Alto Adige, Italy
13.08.201382Eros Blue, Polyommatus erosVal di Riva, Alto Adige, Italy
13.08.201383Lesser Mountain RingletVal di Riva, Alto Adige, Italy
13.08.201384Scarce Copper, Lycaenae vigaureaeVal di Riva, Alto Adige, Italy
16.08.201385Ottoman brassy RingletMonte Altissimo, Trentino, Italy
18.08.201386Knapweed FritillaryVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201387Water RingletVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201388Common Brassy RingletVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201389Mountain RingletVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201390Mnestra's RingletVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201391Mountain FritillaryVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201392Marsh FritillaryVal di Peio, Trentino
18.08.201393Titania's FritillaryVal di Peio, Trentino
02.09.201394HermitCostacciaro, Umbria
03.09.201395Lang's Short-tailed BlueCostacciaro, Umbria

 Excursion Notes 2013
(I was rather late in the year starting this page and haven't added as many photos to the text as I would have liked. However, I hope readers find the entries interesting).

March 2nd Pomarolo, Pedersano, Servis, Castel Barco. The first warm, spring-like day of the year. Sightings: Large Tortoiseshell, Red Admiral, Small Tortoiseshell, Nettle-tree Butterfly

March 23rd Pomarolo. View of the old castle 'Castel Barco'. Still very wintery. Sightings: Large Tortoiseshell, Comma, Nettle-tree Butterfly  (but couldn't get better photo.)

April 1st  Montalcino, Tuscany. Cool, wet weather. The couple of hours that I managed to get out for a walk were very disappointing, with only a few Holly Blues about.

April 6th  Isera and Servis, Sunny morning. Holly Blues, Large Tortoiseshells, Green-veined Whites and this caterpillar.

April 13th  Pedersano. Finally, a warm sunny day after lots of rain. After walking through acres of vineyards, I came to a little hillock overlooking the main valley. A beautiful spot, with 4 or 5 Large Tortoiseshells basking in the sun, a Red Admiral a little further away and two Scarce SwallowtaiIs battling for their territory  and the command of a bush. After a few minutes a Swallowtail appeared and joined in the fight, eventually sending the two Scarce Swallowtails away and claiming the bush for himself.  And … for a split second, I thought I saw a Camberwell Beauty fly past, but despite searching nearby and patiently waiting for a return fly-past, I have no confirmation of the sighting. So far, I have never definitely seen a Camberwell Beauty in our local area.  (Guy Padfield : how do you get them to fly down at you!!) The Large Tortoiseshells occasionally flew up to feed on the sticky buds of this tree (White willow - salix alba?).

April 28th  Rainy morning, but got out for a walk when it stopped. As the moisture was forming low mist and clouds which were slowly rising up the mountain, I decided to drive up to 900 m to get above the clouds. Here is the view.  I was looking for Green Hairstreaks and, sure enough, there were some about. (see main web page for photos). A nice surprise on the way down, as the weather was brightening up (view),  -  the first Glanville Fritillary of the year.

May 4th Still very wet everywhere around, but a pleasant morning on the local mounain-side (photo). As happens every year at this time, there are lots of large reddy-brown moths flying about in the woods. They always fly in a haphazard, unpredictable way and never ever seem to stop or rest and I have never been able to identify them. This year I decided to try to make a special effort to get photos of them , but, because their flight is so jittery and unpredictable, it took me ages before I got a decent (blurred) photo that I could enlarge and identify. The moth (at the bottom centre of the photo), as I suspected,  was a Tau Emperor. I hope to get better pictures at some stage. (See 12th May)

May 9th Walk around Lago San Colombano. Nice warm day. Lots about: Speckled Woods (see main web-page for photo), Small Blues (nmain web-page), Chequered Blues, Orange Tips.

May 11th It rained all morning and most of the afternoon, but when the sun came out at about 5.30, I decided to go for a late-afternoon walk in the meadows in Servis (photo). Two grassy meadows had nothing, but another nearby was full of Blues of various kinds, with several newly-emerged Green-underside Blues. I also found a sole Swallowtail resting peacefully high up on a blade of grass, willing to pose for some photos. (See main web-pages for photos of species mentioned).

May 12th A walk to the same area as on 4th May. This time I was lucky enough to see a Tau Emperor moth settle on a plant, where it stayed long enough to get some good photos of it!(Here and here). A beautifully-coloured day-flying moth!

May 18th  A trip to Moietto at 1,300m asl, with the aim of finding some Duke of Burgundy Fritillaries, but with the cool weather and rain, everything was very wet and there was absolutely nothing of interest about. Decided to come down the mountain a bit (photo), where there were a few things flying in a grassy meadow, including some Chequered Blues and this Pale Clouded Yellow (see main page). A bit further along the path, a nice encounter and photo shoot with this metre-long colubro (Biacco "carbonarius") snake. No Duke of Burgundies, though.  Shortly after, it began to rain … again!

May 26th  Walked on local mountain. A sunny but very cool morning. Just 32 hours before it had snowed down to about 1000m (the mountain in the background in this photo was all white, not just the peak)  and the previous afternoon it had rained heavily.  I started off in Servis, which is about 600m asl. Here is a photo of the area.  There were Wood Whites, Green- underside blues (photo), Common Blues, and one Adonis Blue about, plus the first appearance this year of a Spotted Fritillary. There was this caterpillar feeding on hazel nut. (photo)I followed footpaths up through the woods to Cimana (1,200m asl), but it was not particularly pleasant in the meadows on top, as the clouds were now building up and there was a cold wind (photo). The only butterflies flying were Grizzled Skippers. Further down, the sun came out and there were many more about; several Chequered Blues, lots of Red Admirals (photo), several Pearl-Bordered Fritillaries, a Pale Clouded Yellow, which never stopped for me to get a photo and finally, as I was walking back to the car, the first Duke of Burgundy Fritillary of the year (photo).

June 1st  As I was in Trento in the morning, I took advantage of the non-rainy weather and drove up to a nearby mountain, parking at about 800 metres. There wasn’t much around early on because it was fairly cool and windy, but as the hazy sunshine warmed the air, a few things started to come out – first a small tortoiseshell, then  this Red Admiral, then a Green Hairstreak  then 2 Scarce Swallowtails swooping around.  Having exhausted what there was to see on the hill I had climbed (a disappointing start to the day), I retraced my steps down and started on another path. This time, there was one particular field at just over 1000 metres, full of Duke of Burgundy Fritillaries, each of them trying to guard its own little bit of territory. There were also a couple of Brimstones flying around, the female of which I spotted laying eggs. Here is the photo. The view from the top of the field looks out on to the mountains to the north and the town of Pergine just a few kilometres east of Trento in the Valsugana valley.  I continued walking, mainly in the woods, but as the clouds were now building up and it was turning distinctly chilly, I decided to get back to the car.

June 2nd Went up to Cimana, an area with woods and meadows at 1,300m, but very little around again. A couple of Duke of Burgundy Fritillaries were the only things worth noting.  Further down the mountain where the temperature was much higher,  there was much more about.  This flowery meadow was full of blues, mostly Silver-Studded (this one liked my jeans) and Adonis (mating couple) with the odd Spotted Fritillary, Pale Clouded Yellow and Scarce Swallowtail appearing now and again. A bit further on, a Pearl-Bordered Fritillary posed nicely for a photo.

June 8th A sunny Saturday morning, but with rain forecast later (just for  a change!), so out for a walk (grassy path) at 1,100m a.s.l. Geranium Arguses now out, and a Sooty Copper, plus my first Queen Of Spain Fritillaries for the year – two  very tiny examples. Strange not having seen any earlier in the season. Other interesting encounters included  this moth (?) and this ‘natrice del collare’ snake, which was just warming itself on the road in front of me.

June 14th A really nice day, but unfortunately I couldn’t get out until mid- afternoon. Everything around was far too active and I struggled to get near enough for any decent photos. Here is an Amanda’s Blue, a Mazarine Blue, a Small Heath and a terrible picture of one of the several newly emerged Nettle-Tree butterflies on the wing. With the high temperature there was no chance for a wings-open shot. There were also Heath Fritillaries about and a Large Wall. With the rain clouds forming across the valley (view) and this parting shot of a brown caterpillar, I headed home.

June 15th  It was more-or-less this time last June when I had a close encounter with a Poplar Admiral and got some reasonable photos. So, I went back to the same mountain( photo) todayin the faint hope that I might have a repeat experience but, although I walked well over 10 kms, there was no sign of this wonderful butterfly. It’s probably far too early. With the cold, wet early months of the year, everything seems to be later. However, I was very pleased to find a small colony of Chequered Skippers in a meadow near where I parked my car and this time I was early enough to get some forewing shots as they were warming themselves in the sun. (For other photos , see the main species page.) Other butterflies spotted were lots of Small Blues, Small Tortoiseshells, Red Admirals, Large Walls, my first Painted Lady of the year and several Narrow-Bordered Bee Hawk Moths.This chamois also stopped still long enough for a photo. Finally, here is a view from the village of Serrada of the mountain where I walked.

June 16th. We are up in Cimana (1,300m asl) for our turn helping the local Pro-loco association prepare meals in the mountain house there. Only about 35 lunches today, despite the good weather. While the matriciana sauce was cooking, I escaped to the surrounding meadows for a look around. Much more about now than my last visit only two weeks ago: lots of Duke of Burgundy Fritillaries and lots of Clouded Apollos on the wing, along with Grizzled Skippers, Red Admirals, Large Whites and Wood Whites. Back to the cooking! 

June 19th - 21st.  We have come up to a campsite in the Val di Rabbi for a couple of days, where last year at the very beginning of July I saw lots of butterflies and got pictures of several  new species (for me). Arriving in the afternoon, I went for a quick walk along the side of a stream (photo). A good start, with an appearance of a Thor's Fritillary, which  I had only seen for a few seconds last year, followed by lots of Pearly / Darwin's Heaths. (See main pages for photos).  Unfortunately, being a hot day, all the butterflies were very active and it was difficult to get close enough for good photos. Other species seen on our walks (photo, photo) from 1,200m a.s.l. up to 2,200m a.s.l. included Speckled Woods and Dingy Skippers (great numbers of both), Chequered Skippers, Grizzled Skippers, Woodland Ringlets, Pearl-Bordered and Small Pearl-Bordered Fritillaries, Mazarines Blues, Small Blues, Small Coppers, Sooty Coppers, Common Blues, Chapman's Blues, Large Wall Browns, Green-veined, Large, Small and Wood Whites, Red Admirals and Small Tortoiseshells. To tell the truth, I was disappointed that there were no early showings of other Copper Species or other Fritillaries. However, some great scenery to take in and some strenuous exercise was good for both myself and my wife.

June 28th-30th. Travelling from Trieste to Rovigno in Istria, we saw scores of Great Banded Graylings (photo) along the way (see main species page for others), so many in fact that many were lying dead on the road , having been hit by the passing cars. This was a new species for me, but even from the car, I guessed what butterfly it was. When I convinced my wife to stop for 10 minutes for me to get some photos, at a particular moment there were four of them sitting on a branch along with a Large Tortoiseshell and a Red Admiral. Unfortunately, before I had a chance to aim the camera, another butterfly flew near and they all scattered.
The only short excursion out of Rovigno itself led to sightings of White Admirals and Cleopatra butterflies, the latter of which you can see on the main species page.

July 1st - 21st. On holiday on the island of Brac in Croatia. As usual, there were hundreds of  Woodland Graylings (and here)and Tree Graylings flying around the pine trees amidst the dry grass and prickly vegetation; by far the most common butterflies on the island. An interesting find early on in the holiday was this enormous Giant Peacock Moth  caterpillar (two of them, in fact, on adjacent bushes), twice as big as my thumb and fatter.
A particular highlight another day was walking along a grassy meadow in the south-west part of the island and seeing 6 or 7 Cardinal butterflies (one photo here) gliding around and stopping to feed avidly on the flowers. Like their cousin the Silver-washed Fritillary, they don't seem too perturbed by someone with a camera getting very close to take photos (See main species page). I have yet to see a Cardinal butterfly in Italy but have seen them regularly every year here on Brac. Other butterflies included many Southern Comma's and Southern White Admirals (photo), Small Coppers (photo), Mallow Skippers, Swallowtails and Scarce Swallowtails, Brown Arguses (photo), Large Wall Browns and Eastern Bath Whites (photo).

July 22nd - 31st. Touring Bosnia. Visits to Blagaj, Mostar, Sarajevo and Prijedor. On our second day in Sarajevo(26th July), having some free time in the morning, I went for a run and discovered a butterfly-hunter's paradise near the River Bosna. At the edge of some thick woods along a shady, grassy bank along a country road near the river, there were dozens of Silver-washed Fritillaries, White Admirals and Meadow Browns flitting around. All of a sudden, an enormous female Purple Emperor swooped down to feed from the damp undergrowth. (photo) None of my photos are particularly good, because it would not stay still long enough,  but kept walking, turning, opening and closing its wings, taking off, landing again, once on my back and once on the back of my leg (my contortionist days are long finished!) It zoomed off a good minute later. and did not come back. However, Common Gliders began to appear (my first experience of this butterfly), followed by one or two male Purple Emperors, which settled for a few seconds before taking off for the higher branches, and then a lightning visit of a Lesser Purple Emperor  (photo). It settled in the shade a good 10m away, so, again, my photo (the first I have of this species) was a long badly-aimed shot. At this point, as it was lunchtime, I decided to call it a day, and resumed my run back to the campsite. 
    Although we had to leave the next day, I persuaded my wife to visit the same spot, firstly to get some better pictures of the Common Glider and also to see if the Emperors would come back. The Common Gliders were there and new to the place was a beautiful Large Tortoiseshell. However, it was time to go, and just as I joined my wife for a quick coffee, out of the corner of my eye I spotted a large dark butterfly settling by the side of the river. On approaching, I realised it was a Poplar Admiral! Unfortunately as I approached, it shot off up into the trees and settled on a branch about 15m up and the only photo possible was on full zoom (here). Two minutes later walking back to the car, what should appear but a large fresh Camberwell Beauty, the first time I have ever encountered this species (Photo). It didn't stay around long, but I did manage to get 3 reasonable photos of it (See main species page).  I should add at this point, that all the butterflies mentioned in these two paragraphs were seen within 150m of each other. I will return to this spot one day! 
   Still on holiday and some photos of the Map butterfly (photo) - another new species for me. These were taken near the river Sana (photo) near Prijedor in northern Bosnia. (For others see main species page). There were also lots of Peacock caterpillars around. (photo)
    On returning to Italy, we stopped on the river Mreznica near Karlovac in Croatia.
When I went out for a walk late afternoon, I was hoping to spot some more Lesser Purple Emperors, but there was little of interest around except for a couple of Large Coppers. The next morning, I tried again and eventually saw a Lesser Purple Emperor flash past me up the river. I didn't discover where it went. Then, true to form, sitting down for a coffee with my wife just before leaving, one settled on the ground a few paces away from our table. Before I had a chance to pick up my camera, it was scared off by some people walking past and disappeared across the other side of the river. This part of the tale becomes rather ironic and sad. I was in fact able to get a photo of a Lesser Purple Emperor  before I arrived home, but not the way I would have liked: Before joining the motorway, we travelled along some very small country lanes and there were lots of butterflies about. 250 km later, in Italy, we stopped for fuel, and I noticed that stuck to the car headlight was a butterfly that resembled a Lesser Purple Emperor. It had obviously flown into the path of the car, got stuck and transported all the way to where I discovered it. I peeled it off, now a dry carcass, kept it, later relaxed it so I could unfurl the deformed wings to identify it (I thought it might be a Freyer's Purple Emperor) and took these two sad photos (here and here). 

August 3rd. Back in Italy and a trip up a local mountain. Most common butterflies: Large Ringlets/ Arran Browns. The highlight, though, was seeing a male Purple Emperor fly past, guessing that it would find a vantage point at the very peak of the mountain (2,140m asl) (photo), finding it there and getting some good shots of it. It kept flying off for a few moments to defend its territory (mainly against a Swallowtail, which had also decided to claim the hilltop as its own) but always returned to more or less the same bush (photo) where it was obviously looking out for a mate. After about an hour my second stroke of luck in 8 days - lo and behold, a large, fresh, female Purple Emperor appeared from nowhere and settled just out of view behind a bush. Strangely enough, the male didn't see it arrive and only when I disturbed it by trying to get into a position to take a photo, did the male zoom up into the air and fly off with the female. After 5 minutes, much to my surprise, the male returned alone, the female for some reason having rejected him. 
    A two-hour walk down in the heat, revealed another surprise just before reaching my car. On the gravelly track in front of me was a very worn tired-looking Poplar Admiral (photo). To show how late the season is this year, last year this species was flying the 3rd week of June!   
    List of other species identified: Large skipper, Brimstone, Clouded Yellow, Black-veined white, Red Admiral, Peacock, Comma, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Shepherd's Fritillary, Alpine Heath, Chalkhill Blue.

August 12th, 16th, 18th and 19th. A trip to some of the higher mountains in Trentino and Alto Adige in  the hope of still finding some of the higher altitude species. In Alto Adige at 1.900m asl (photo), I was lucky enough to come across a pale-looking Clouded Yellow, which turned out to be a Moorland Clouded Yellow, a new species for me, and on returning to the car a pale-looking blue, which I believe is an Eros Blue (See main pages for photos). Lots of Common (and Swiss) Brassy Ringlets were about and a small colony of Scarce Coppers (photo). The rainy weather cut our walks slightly shorter than we would have liked, but they were rewarding all the same.   
    Four days later I was in the Val di Peio and the weather was much kinder to me, the showers which had been forecast never appearing. (Photo here and here). I climbed from 1,500m asl up to 2,600m and was well-rewarded by my efforts. Among the many erebia species about (Marbled, Water, Lesser Mountain and Mountain Ringlets and Arran Browns) I came across what I believe is a Mnestra's Ringlet at about 2,200m asl (See main page). At the peak of my climb, well beyond the tree-line, sheltering in the grass, were several Marsh Fritillaries, old and worn at this point in the season, but another new species for me (photo). This butterfly (photo) intrigued me for a bit because of its unusual underside black markings, but I believe it to be simply an old, slightly wet Heath Fritillary (photo). Other Fritillaries I spotted included  dozens of Dark Green Fritillaries, 3 or 4 Knapweed Fritillaries (photo) and several Titania Fritillaries. There were also numerous Shepherd's/ Mountain Fritillaries and Alpine Heaths at the higher altitude but I only came across one blue in the whole trip - a Mazarine Blue. 
    The following day, I did a similar 1000m climb from 1,400m asl to just over 2,400m (photo), but disappointingly,there was very little about above 1,900m because of the cold wind. The most common butterflies at this altitude (photo) were Dark Green Fritillaries and Niobe Fritllaries (photo) (see main page for others).

September 2nd, 3rd, 4th. We had the opportunity to spend a few days in a campsite in the heart of Umbria, a rare occasion to go butterfly hunting in Italy outside of my usual area in the north. Being so late in the season, my expectations were not very high, especially because we had just spent a short period in Pescara on the Adriatic coast for a family wedding, where the only butterflies that I had seen were Large Whites (admittedly along the sea-front). Anyway, my trip up Monte Cucco (photo), not far from Gubbio, rewarded me with my first Italian photos of Hermit butterflies (at 1,200m asl) and Great Banded Graylings (the latter previous;ly encountered for the first time in Croatia at the beginning of July). There were also lots of Tree Graylings and Woodland Graylings everywhere, but particularly along this path (photo). I also witnessed the courtship ritual of Woodland Graylings, bowing and curtseying in front of each other. (photo).
    The next day a cycle ride with my wife along a stony dirt track involved crossing a little stream (photo here). Something purple flashed by and I realised it was a Lesser Purple Emperor; an unexpected sighting, because the distribution maps I had seen indicated its range as finishing a fair distance to the north. Two return visits to the stream over the next day-and-a-half allowed me to get some reasonable photos of this lovely butterfly (here, here and here). In between the many waits for the butterfly to return after it had flown off in pursuit of other males, I examined the other blues that were drinking from the muddy ground (Common and Holly) and was pleased to find numerous Lang's Short-tailed Blues, a new species for me (photo here and here). The most common other butterflies were Meadow Browns, Silver-washed Fritillaries and Southern White Admirals with the occasional, rather worn Spotted Fritillaries. 



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